Research principle – Metro Research http://metroresearch.org/ Wed, 18 May 2022 21:17:08 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://metroresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/cropped-icon-32x32.png Research principle – Metro Research http://metroresearch.org/ 32 32 Senior Elkin among the class of 2026 of the Morehead-Cain Foundation https://metroresearch.org/senior-elkin-among-the-class-of-2026-of-the-morehead-cain-foundation/ Wed, 18 May 2022 20:27:00 +0000 https://metroresearch.org/senior-elkin-among-the-class-of-2026-of-the-morehead-cain-foundation/ Chandler Beal This fall, 75 new Morehead-Cain Scholars from across North Carolina, the United States, and the world will begin their undergraduate careers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-Chapel Hill). The Class of 2026 includes: 41 North Carolina scholars 34 scholars from other US states and territories · 10 international researchers […]]]>

Chandler Beal

This fall, 75 new Morehead-Cain Scholars from across North Carolina, the United States, and the world will begin their undergraduate careers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-Chapel Hill). The Class of 2026 includes:

41 North Carolina scholars

34 scholars from other US states and territories

· 10 international researchers from Canada, India, South Sudan, United Kingdom and Vietnam.

Chandler Ann Beals of Elkin High School is among 75 new scholars chosen for the program. Beals will graduate this spring and report to UNC-Chapel Hill in the fall. In high school, Beal served as student body president, president of the Interact club, and co-captain of the women’s varsity soccer team. She co-founded and leads the Speech and Debating Club and has competed in college tennis, cross country, basketball and soccer. Beals is dual-enrolled at the North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics and spent the summer before her senior year studying Arabic on a scholarship from the National Security Language Initiative for Youth (NSLI-Y). Outside of school, she is an outreach coordinator for the ESL Opportunity Project, which matches high school English learners around the world with language partners in the United States, and is an active member of the First United Methodist Church. of Elkin. In his spare time, Beals enjoys playing guitar, reading, and running long distances. In Carolina, she wants to pursue global studies. She is the daughter of Lisa and Frank Beals of Elkin.

“The best part of the program is the wonderful community I have already found; people from all walks of life willing to support me and push me out of my comfort zone to be the best version of myself. I plan to take a year off on the scholarship and then enter UNC Chapel Hill in the Class of 2027,” Beals said.

Morehead-Cain brings together a thriving cohort of thinkers, leaders, dreamers, creators, and adventurers, and equips them with the tools to unlock their potential. In addition to fully-funded study at one of America’s leading public research universities, scholars have access to a network of peers and mentors, challenging internships and summer experiences, and the opportunity to travel. worldwide.

“Morehead-Cain identifies, accelerates and connects the most promising young leaders from all walks of life,” said Chris Bradford, President of the Morehead-Cain Foundation. “We are proud to welcome another class of young leaders who embody a rare combination of potential, principle and purpose.”

Morehead-Cain Scholars regularly win distinguished national and international scholarships for postgraduate study, including the Rhodes Scholarship at the University of Oxford and the Gates Cambridge Scholarship at the University of Cambridge in England; the Luce, Marshall and Truman scholarships for study abroad and at home; the Knight-Hennessy Fellowship from Stanford University; and the McCall MacBain Fellowship from McGill University in Canada. In 2021, for the first time in UNC-Chapel Hill history, three students – all Morehead-Cain Scholars – won the prestigious Rhodes Scholarship in the same year.

The Class of 2026 joins a community of more than 3,300 Morehead-Cain alumni across the world. Since its inception in 1945, the Morehead-Cain program has been a model for countless merit scholarships across the United States. These include the Jefferson Scholars program at the University of Virginia, the Benjamin N. Duke Scholars program at Duke University, and the Woodruff Scholars program at Emory University.

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From tennis to language learning – ScienceDaily https://metroresearch.org/from-tennis-to-language-learning-sciencedaily/ Sat, 14 May 2022 23:46:35 +0000 https://metroresearch.org/from-tennis-to-language-learning-sciencedaily/ Variability is critically important for learning new skills. Consider learning to serve in tennis. Should you always practice serving from exactly the same spot on the court, aiming for the exact same spot? Although training in more variable conditions will be slower in the beginning, it will likely make you a better tennis player in […]]]>

Variability is critically important for learning new skills. Consider learning to serve in tennis. Should you always practice serving from exactly the same spot on the court, aiming for the exact same spot? Although training in more variable conditions will be slower in the beginning, it will likely make you a better tennis player in the end. Indeed, variability leads to a better generalization of what is learned.

Chihuahuas and Great Danes

This principle is found in many areas, including speech perception, grammar, and the learning of words and categories. For example, infants will have a hard time learning the “dog” category if they are only exposed to Chihuahuas, instead of many different types of dogs (Chihuahuas, Poodles, and Great Danes).

“There are more than ten different names for this basic principle!” says Limor Raviv of MPI, lead researcher of the study. “Learning from less variable inputs is often rapid, but may not generalize to new stimuli. But this important information has not been unified into a single theoretical framework, which has clouded the picture of whole.

To identify key patterns and understand the underlying principles of variability effects, Raviv and his colleagues reviewed more than 150 studies of variability and generalization in all fields, including computer science, linguistics, categorization, l motor learning, visual perception and formal education.

Mr. Miyagi

The researchers found that, across studies, the term variability can refer to at least four kinds variability, like set size (e.g. the number of different examples or locations on the tennis court) and Planning (e.g. training times with different orders or time differences). “These four types of variability have never been directly compared, which means we currently don’t know which is more efficient for learning,” Raviv says.

The impact of variability varies depending on whether it is relevant to the task or not (it can be said that the color of the tennis court is not relevant for service training). But according to the ‘M. Miyagi’s principle (inspired by the classic 1984 film Karate Kid), practicing seemingly unrelated skills (like waxing cars) can actually benefit learning other skills (like martial arts).

Competing theories

But Why does variability impact learning and generalization? One theory is that more variable input can highlight which aspects of a task are relevant and which are not (color is useful for distinguishing between lemons and limes, but not for distinction between cars and trucks).

Another theory is that greater variability leads to broader generalizations. This is because variability will better represent the real world, including atypical examples (like Chihuahuas).

A third reason has to do with how memory works: when learning is variable, learners are forced to actively reconstruct their memories.

face recognition

“Understanding the impact of variability is important to literally every aspect of our daily lives. In addition to affecting how we learn language, motor skills and categories, it even impacts our social lives,” says Raviv. “For example, facial recognition is affected by whether people grew up in a small community (less than 1,000 people) or in a larger community (more than 30,000 people). Exposure to fewer faces during childhood is associated with decreased facial memory.

“We hope this work will pique people’s curiosity and generate more work on the topic,” Raviv concludes. “Our article raises many open questions. For example: Is the relationship between variability and learning broadly similar across species, or are there species-specific adaptations? Can we find similar effects of variability beyond the brain, for example in the immune system? »

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More precise surgery with the anatomy projector https://metroresearch.org/more-precise-surgery-with-the-anatomy-projector/ Fri, 13 May 2022 04:30:00 +0000 https://metroresearch.org/more-precise-surgery-with-the-anatomy-projector/ If you project relevant information such as blood vessels onto a patient’s skin during surgery, you can operate much more accurately. The Radboudumc in Nijmegen developed the Anatomy projector which is based on augmented reality. Translating medical information from a screen to a patient is difficult when a plastic surgeon must work on a microscopic […]]]>

If you project relevant information such as blood vessels onto a patient’s skin during surgery, you can operate much more accurately. The Radboudumc in Nijmegen developed the Anatomy projector which is based on augmented reality.

Translating medical information from a screen to a patient is difficult when a plastic surgeon must work on a microscopic scale. There must be another way, Dr. Stefan Hummelink thought. As a student of technical medicine, he did his graduation research at Radboudumc in the department of plastic surgery. It was in 2012, when augmented reality was still in its infancy. Hummelink built the prototype anatomy projector in its hangar.

Breast reconstruction

“The principle of projected augmented reality was innovative at the time and we were able to patent it,” says Hummelink. Since then, the machine has been developed into a device as large as a thick tablet. It is used weekly during breast surgery at Radboudumc. “In breast reconstruction, a section is removed. Skin and fat, supplied by a blood vessel, are attached to the breast under the microscope. It is important to preserve the supply blood vessels, otherwise the operation will fail.

3D map on the skin

“With the projector, we can show exactly on the skin where these blood vessels are, but also, for example, the lymph nodes of a patient,” says Hummelink. This is different for each patient. This information is retrieved from a scanner, based on which a 3D plan is then made. The patient has markers applied to his skin. “It provides additional information to the plastic surgeon and the team around him.”

No need for AR glasses

Even if the projector moves, the images remain correctly displayed on the patient. This allows the plastic surgeon to work more effectively and efficiently. Another advantage is that the surgeon does not need AR glasses and everyone in the operating room can keep an eye on the projection with them. In 2017, Hummelink received funding from the Demonstrator program of the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) to further develop the projector.

het ontwerp
The Anatomy Projector Design

Business challenge

The Anatomy Projector was recently selected for the NWO Venture Challenge. This challenge aims to help entrepreneurs who are starting out to bring their product or service to market. A business case is set up in a few weeks. Then the product is presented to potential investors. Hummelink hopes a company will step in to help further develop the product and eventually bring it to market. Personally, he would like to continue providing healthcare solutions within a university hospital. “After all, this is where you see exactly what doctors are up against and where you can still improve healthcare.”

More potential

The anatomy projector is currently only used for breast reconstruction. But according to Hummelink, the technology has much more potential. “In addition to blood vessels, muscles, tendons or nerves, you can also project other information onto the body.” However, it also requires more research and costs a lot of money. “I also hope that the Venture Challenge that we are about to launch will be successful and that interested investors or companies will come forward. After all, screenings in the operating room are the future!

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Floating Power Plant Market Size and Forecast https://metroresearch.org/floating-power-plant-market-size-and-forecast/ Wed, 11 May 2022 03:24:57 +0000 https://metroresearch.org/floating-power-plant-market-size-and-forecast/ New Jersey, United States – Comprehensive analyzes of the fastest growing companies Floating Power Plant Market provide information that helps stakeholders identify opportunities and challenges. The 2022 markets could be another big year for Floating Power Plant. This report provides an overview of the company’s activities and financial situation (a company profile is required if […]]]>

New Jersey, United States – Comprehensive analyzes of the fastest growing companies Floating Power Plant Market provide information that helps stakeholders identify opportunities and challenges. The 2022 markets could be another big year for Floating Power Plant. This report provides an overview of the company’s activities and financial situation (a company profile is required if you want to raise capital or attract investors), recent developments (mergers and acquisitions) and recent SWOT analyses. This report focuses on the floating power plant market over the assessment period 2029. The report also provides an analysis of the floating power plant market growth which includes Porter’s five factor analysis and analysis of the supply chain.

It describes the behavior of the industry. It also outlines a future direction that will help companies and other stakeholders make informed decisions that will ensure strong returns for years to come. The report provides a practical overview of the global market and its changing environment to help readers make informed decisions about market projects. This report focuses on growth opportunities that allow the market to expand its operations in existing markets.

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The report helps both major players and new entrants to analyze the market in depth. This helps key players determine their business strategy and set goals. The report provides key market insights including niche growth opportunities along with market size, growth rate and forecast in key regions and countries.

The Floating Power Plant report contains data based on rigorous primary and secondary school studies using best research practices. The report contains exhaustive information which will allow you to evaluate each segment of the Floating Power Station market. This report has been prepared considering various aspects of market research and analysis. It includes market size estimates, market dynamics, and company and market best practices. Entry marketing strategy, positioning, segmentation, competitive landscape and economic forecasts. Industry-specific technology solutions, roadmap analysis, alignment to key buying criteria, in-depth vendor product benchmarking

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• Floating solar power
• Floating wind
• Floating wind and wave energy
• Floating nuclear energy
• Others

By application, this report covers the following segments:

• Non-renewable
• Renewable
• Wind

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ATTRIBUTES DETAILS
ESTIMATED YEAR 2022
YEAR OF REFERENCE 2021
FORECAST YEAR 2029
HISTORICAL YEAR 2020
UNITY Value (million USD/billion)
SECTORS COVERED Types, applications, end users, and more.
REPORT COVER Revenue Forecast, Business Ranking, Competitive Landscape, Growth Factors and Trends
BY REGION North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa
CUSTOMIZATION SCOPE Free report customization (equivalent to up to 4 analyst business days) with purchase. Added or changed country, region and segment scope.

Geographic segment covered in the report:

The Floating Power Plant report provides information on the market area, which is further sub-divided into sub-regions and countries/regions. In addition to the market share in each country and sub-region, this chapter of this report also contains information on profit opportunities. This chapter of the report mentions the market share and growth rate of each region, country and sub-region over the estimated period.

• North America (USA and Canada)
• Europe (UK, Germany, France and rest of Europe)
• Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, India and the rest of the Asia-Pacific region)
• Latin America (Brazil, Mexico and rest of Latin America)
• Middle East and Africa (GCC and Rest of Middle East and Africa)

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]]> Indigenous cartographic insights and cybermapping https://metroresearch.org/indigenous-cartographic-insights-and-cybermapping/ Sat, 07 May 2022 12:51:14 +0000 https://metroresearch.org/indigenous-cartographic-insights-and-cybermapping/ In 1997, Dr. DR Fraser Taylor, Director of the Center for Geomatics and Mapping Research, introduced a new approach to mapping that gives voice to communities. His research led to the creation and establishment of the field of cybermapping. In short, cybermapping is an interactive, multimedia and multi-sensory online mapping format that uses location as […]]]>

In 1997, Dr. DR Fraser Taylor, Director of the Center for Geomatics and Mapping Research, introduced a new approach to mapping that gives voice to communities. His research led to the creation and establishment of the field of cybermapping. In short, cybermapping is an interactive, multimedia and multi-sensory online mapping format that uses location as an organizing principle and integrates cultural, historical, linguistic, economic and social data with cartographic information. In 2007, William Commanda saw the benefits of this innovative platform to chart his own story.

Dr. Taylor notes that “the creation of cyber-cartographic atlases on the GCRC’s Nunaliit digital atlas framework has generated great interest among Indigenous communities, in part because it is based on development principles that I have noted for the first time in my work in East Africa. This early research demonstrated the importance of the holistic approach to knowledge retention and generation of the Kikuyu peoples of Kenya, and the innovative mapping of diverse cultural, social and economic variables, while contributing to respecting the interrelationships between different knowledge systems.

In 1977, Ella-Han’sa articulated the concept of the circle of life at the first circumpolar conference. This raised the voice of Inuit and inspired connections and partnerships with northern communities. With respect to cybermapping, closer engagement with First Nations and Inuit communities facilitated the introduction of new functionality into the Nunaliit atlas authoring platform; and in fact, the name Nunaliit, (or “community” in Inuktituut), reflects the dynamic nature of partnership with Inuit colleagues. Many Inuit communities, including elders and youth, have engaged in map making and storytelling in the creation of cyber cartographic atlases. One in 10 Photoatlas One in 10 Photoatlas Cybercartographic Atlas 2021 examines some of this important cartography that incorporates environmental knowledge, land and waterways, language and cultural heritage.

“Today, I am more convinced than ever that Inuit knowledge is an independent knowledge system of equal importance to Western systems,” says Dr. Taylor. This body of knowledge that is currently emerging in academia is partly articulated by Indigenous peoples in publications on cybermapping.

Dr. Taylor adds that “Indigenous mapping must first and foremost be for the benefit of Indigenous communities. This means they must have control over what is mapped and how that knowledge is mapped and shared. Existing approaches such as the FAIR principles (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable) even modified by the CARE principles (Collective Benefit, Authority to Control, Responsibility, Ethics) do not fully meet these requirements.

In Canada, the Ownership Control Access and Possession (OCAP) principles are an improvement, but there are still significant legal, ethical and social issues to be resolved. For example, Indigenous knowledge is not protected by copyright law in Canada. The copyright in Indigenous maps belongs to those who produce them, and in many cases that is Google or Esri, not the Indigenous communities.”

In a globally connected world, new opportunities to support relationships and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals are emerging in the field of Indigenous mapping, in line with William Commanda’s philosophy that all is interdependent both in time and in the space. In these times of global pandemic, environmental catastrophe, and human crisis, it is becoming apparent to many how critical it is to truly listen to the still, small voices of connection and warning that are the world’s Indigenous peoples.

Romola V. Thumbadoo

PhD Geography, SSHRC Postdoctoral Researcher ([email protected])

Romola V. Thumbadoo has supported the work of Indigenous Elder William Commanda since 1997 https://circleofallnations.ca. His doctoral and postdoctoral research over the past decade has focused on his thought and legacy, under the direction of Dr. DR Fraser Taylor, Director of the Center for Geomatics and Mapping Research https://gcrc.carleton.ca at Carleton University .

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New insights into DNA and protein connections https://metroresearch.org/new-insights-into-dna-and-protein-connections/ Tue, 03 May 2022 08:56:44 +0000 https://metroresearch.org/new-insights-into-dna-and-protein-connections/ A new genetic mapping study by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health traces the links between variations in DNA and thousands of blood proteins in two large and distinct populations. The results should help researchers better understand the molecular causes of diseases and identify proteins that could be targeted to treat […]]]>

A new genetic mapping study by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health traces the links between variations in DNA and thousands of blood proteins in two large and distinct populations. The results should help researchers better understand the molecular causes of diseases and identify proteins that could be targeted to treat these diseases.

The study included more than 9,000 Americans of European or African ancestry and generated DNA-protein linkage maps for both groups. The study is believed to be the first of its kind to include two large ancestrally distinct population cohorts. Proteins play a critical role in cell function, and changes in protein mechanisms, often regulated by variations in DNA, can lead to disease. DNA-protein mapping could help explain differences in rates of certain diseases in the two groups and help researchers understand certain health disparities.

The study appears on May 2 in Natural genetics.

Researchers have been mapping the molecular roots of human diseases for decades through so-called genetic mapping studies. The best known is the genome-wide association study (GWAS). A GWAS typically links DNA variations to disease risk by analyzing the DNA of subjects – often tens or hundreds of thousands of individuals at a time – as well as their history of a given disease. This reveals statistical associations linking the disease to specific DNA variations.

Missing from the GWAS image: Most disease-related DNA variants identified by GWAS analysis are not found in protein-coding genes. The researchers therefore hypothesized that many, if not most, disease-related DNA variants affect proteins indirectly, by regulating one or more steps in the gene-protein production process, thereby altering protein levels. By linking diseases directly to proteins, researchers can better understand the roots of disease and also identify protein targets for disease prevention and treatment.

“This relatively new type of mapping study provides a wealth of information that will allow researchers to test potential protein links on various types of health outcomes – risk of cancers, heart disease, severe COVID – and help develop or reuse therapeutic drugs,” says the study’s lead author, Nilanjan Chatterjee, PhD, Bloomberg Professor Emeritus in the Bloomberg School’s Department of Biostatistics.

To demonstrate the application of DNA protein mapping, the researchers used it to identify an existing drug for rheumatoid arthritis as a plausible new treatment for the common joint pain disorder known as gout.

The study was a collaboration between Chatterjee’s team and the research group of Josef Coresh, MD, Professor George W. Comstock in the Bloomberg School’s Department of Epidemiology and one of the paper’s co-authors. , and colleagues from several institutions.

The analysis looked at 7,213 Americans of European descent and 1,871 African Americans in the long-running Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, led by Coresh; and 467 African Americans from the African American Kidney Disease and Hypertension Study (AASK). In both of these studies, the research teams had sequenced the participants’ genomes and recorded the blood levels of thousands of distinct proteins.

For their mapping study, Chatterjee’s team analyzed ARIC and AASK genomic data to identify more than two thousand common DNA variations that lie near the genes coding for many of these proteins and correlate with the levels blood proteins.

“The value of knowing these DNA variants that predict certain protein levels is that we can then look at much larger GWAS datasets to see if these same DNA variants are linked to disease risk,” says Chatterjee.

Using a Euro-American dataset, they found it predicted several proteins whose levels would influence gout risk or blood levels of the gout-linked chemical urate. These proteins included the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist protein (IL1RN), which appears to reduce the risk of gout – a finding that suggests that the existing rheumatoid arthritis drug anakinra, which mimics IL1RN, as a plausible new therapy for gout.

Having data from both white and black Americans allowed the researchers to map protein-related DNA variants more finely than if they had been limited to one or the other. The models of African ancestry generated in the study will allow future analyzes of how the genetic backgrounds of different populations might contribute to differences in disease rates.

“We know that the risk of prostate cancer, for example, is higher in African American men, so in principle one could combine the GWAS data on prostate cancer in African Americans with our data on proteins to identify proteins that contribute to the elevated risk of prostate cancer in this population,” says Chatterjee.

The team has made its datasets and protein prediction models publicly available in line so that researchers can use the resource. The Chatterjee team and collaborators plan to conduct further studies in the ARIC and AASK cohorts, as well as other miscellaneous cohorts, to gather information about proteins and other factors that influence the DNA causal chain. -sickness.

“Plasma proteome analyzes in individuals of European and African ancestry identify cis-pQTLs and patterns for proteome-wide association studies” was co-authored by first authors Jingning Zhang and Diptavo Dutta , and by Anna Köttgen, Adrienne Tin, Pascal Schlosser, Morgan Grams , Benjamin Harvey, CKDGen Consortium, Bing Yu, Eric Boerwinkle, Josef Coresh and Nilanjan Chatterjee.

Reference: Zhang J, Dutta D, Köttgen A, et al. Plasma proteome analyzes in individuals of European and African ancestry identify cis-pQTLs and models for proteome-wide association studies. Nat Genet. 2022. do: 10.1038/s41588-022-01051-w

This article was republished from the following materials. Note: Material may have been edited for length and content. For more information, please contact the quoted source.

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Stupid versus evil? The Psychology of American Politics https://metroresearch.org/stupid-versus-evil-the-psychology-of-american-politics/ Sun, 01 May 2022 15:59:22 +0000 https://metroresearch.org/stupid-versus-evil-the-psychology-of-american-politics/ Last night I dreamed that I was reading the news. Scrolling down the page, I saw a headline saying tactical nuclear weapons were used in the Russian invasion of Ukraine. It was terrifying, disappointing, shocking and somehow unsurprising. In the dream, I went to show it to my family… unsure of what the future held […]]]>

Last night I dreamed that I was reading the news. Scrolling down the page, I saw a headline saying tactical nuclear weapons were used in the Russian invasion of Ukraine. It was terrifying, disappointing, shocking and somehow unsurprising. In the dream, I went to show it to my family… unsure of what the future held for me.

We live in a time of absurd and frightening confusion, with political divisions widening every day like a planet splintering into shards in the latest Armageddon-based blockbuster. The relentless advance of technology beyond the human capacity to integrate change, the hyper-connected overload of social media and misinformation, and the rapidly accumulating trauma of history and the recent past conspire to putting ourselves in ever-increasing danger to dissociation and destruction as a result of a bad decision. manufacturing.

The jury is out on how we’re going to doom ourselves: are we going to yell at each other until we can’t take any more, or learn to work together to solve the “collective prisoner’s dilemma” before things get even worse far ?

donkeys and elephants

Recent research on American politics sheds additional light on how Republican and Democratic polarization influences how we see ourselves across the great divide. At the heart of this is how we understand where the other is coming from: are they bad or just ignorant? Journal Search Bulletin of Personality and Social Psychology (2022) tackles this issue head-on, drawing on the political trope that “conservatives think liberals are stupid, and liberals think conservatives are bad”. But is it true?

Authors Hartman, Hester and Gray point out common stereotypes. We tend to see more liberal Americans highlight perceptions of conservatives as racist, sexist, afraid of strangers, closed-minded, or perhaps just malicious, attributing greater intentionality. Conversely, conservatives can be interpreted as “unsophisticated, backward rednecks who vote against their own interests”.

Likewise, liberal views range from being naïve dupes who adhere to stupid policies with unrealistic idealism to willful hypocrites in a political system that espouses egalitarianism while surreptitiously pursuing a more nefarious agenda incorporating horrific accusations of support for “death signs” and “baby murders”. ”.

Psychologically, people generally want to see others as an essential good on the inside. Seeing others as fundamentally and irreversibly evil is the last thing we want to believe. People tend to regard those who agree with their own point of view as smarter and those who differ as dumber. Concluding that others are immoral is a bitter pill to swallow – it may not be a matter of morality, but of intelligence or education.

The research

The study authors conducted four studies with more than 1,600 total participants to examine opponents’ perceptions of immorality and ignorance. The first study found that regardless of their political affiliation, participants viewed people from the other party as more stupid than mean, contrary to stereotypes. In this study, they asked whether people were “conservative” or “liberal”, rather than their party affiliation. Immorality and ignorance turned out to be distinct and different concepts. This may seem obvious, but it is important to show it statistically.

In the second study, participants were interviewed in November 2018 immediately after a vote on amendments to the North Carolina state constitution. Republicans and Democrats tended to see each other as stupid rather than mean. However, conservatives were a bit more inclined to choose evil over stupidity, compared to liberals.

In the third study, researchers asked about explicit party affiliation—Democrat or Republican (other affiliations were excluded from the analysis), then asked participants to rate members of the opposite side on various adjectives. Again, both endorsed the other’s perception as overall more ignorant than immoral.

In the fourth and final study, rather than asking members of one group what they thought of the other group, researchers asked a cross-section of U.S. residents about the attitudes they thought Republicans and Democrats had towards each other, to obtain “meta-perceptions”. . Regardless of political affiliation, how do you think Republicans view Democrats, and vice versa? General patterns held: Generally, people understand that Republicans and Democrats are more likely to attribute ignorance of evil to opponents, going against stereotypes.

However, there were some interesting differences in how Republicans and Democrats viewed the attitudes of Republicans versus Democrats. Participants tended to view Republicans as having more negative views of Democrats than they actually do. Additionally, Democratic participants perceived Democrats to view Republicans as more ignorant than immoral; Republican participants had a misperception that Democrats viewed Republicans roughly the same on ignorance and immorality.

Again, Republicans were somewhat more likely to attribute harm than Democrats, perhaps due to underlying differences in authoritarianism and personality, or cultural and religious beliefs. Overall, however, the culprit was more often seen as stupidity rather than evil, regardless of political orientation.

The fate of the Earth is in our hands

While this can be a dark topic with a lot of room for pessimism, understanding attributions within and outside the group is important to determine if and how we can begin to bridge the divisions in our body politic.

If the opponent is absolute evil, there is little room for hope. Ignorance, curiously, brings hope, since it can in principle be fought through education, provided that work is done to establish dialogue and combat the echo chambers of misinformation. Work on conflict resolution shows that dialogue can start with an “alliance of moderates”, because building bridges in the middle can help bring the extremes together.

An intriguing recent study (2022) by Broockman and Kalla highlights the possibility of change through the deprogramming of misinformation. In this study, Fox News viewers were paid to watch CNN for 30 days. Participants “treated” with this intervention were able to reverse false beliefs and realize that important information had been hidden from them by their preferred media. The results also suggest that examining information from diverse and credible sources across the continuum of political beliefs would allow smart and open-minded consumers to triangulate a more accurate view.

Understand key factors, such as cancel culture and big group psychology, the effect of radical belief on the brain, the ways leadership short-circuits reason, how we come to believe lies and other factors, is critically important if we are to leverage knowledge for optimistic and compassionate action. Given the state of the American psyche, fragmented and disintegrated, there is no better time than the present.

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Long-awaited accelerator ready to explore the origins of the elements https://metroresearch.org/long-awaited-accelerator-ready-to-explore-the-origins-of-the-elements/ Fri, 29 Apr 2022 16:19:10 +0000 https://metroresearch.org/long-awaited-accelerator-ready-to-explore-the-origins-of-the-elements/ An aerial view of the Rare Isotope Beam Facility on the Michigan State University campus.Credit: Rare Isotope Beam Facility One of nuclear physicists’ fondest wishes is about to come true. After a decades-long wait, a US$942 million accelerator in Michigan officially opens on May 2. His experiments will trace unexplored regions of the landscape of […]]]>

An aerial view of the Rare Isotope Beam Facility on the Michigan State University campus.Credit: Rare Isotope Beam Facility

One of nuclear physicists’ fondest wishes is about to come true. After a decades-long wait, a US$942 million accelerator in Michigan officially opens on May 2. His experiments will trace unexplored regions of the landscape of exotic atomic nuclei and shed light on how stars and supernova explosions create most of the elements of the Universe.

“This project was a dream come true for the entire nuclear physics community,” says Ani Aprahamian, an experimental nuclear physicist at the University of Notre Dame in Indiana. Kate Jones, who studies nuclear physics at the University of Tennessee in Knoxville, agrees. “This is the long-awaited facility for us,” she says.

The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) at Michigan State University (MSU) in East Lansing had a budget of $730 million, most of which was funded by the US Department of Energy, with a contribution of $94.5 million from the State of Michigan. The University of Michigan contributed an additional $212 million in various ways, including land. It replaces a former National Science Foundation accelerator, called the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), at the same site. Construction of FRIB began in 2014 and was completed late last year, “five months ahead of schedule and on budget,” says nuclear physicist Bradley Sherrill, who is the scientific director of FRIB. FRIB.

For decades, nuclear physicists have been pushing for a facility of its might — one that could produce rare isotopes orders of magnitude faster than is possible with NSCL and similar accelerators around the world. The first proposals for such a machine came in the late 1980s and a consensus was reached in the 1990s. “The community was adamant that we needed a tool like this,” says Witold Nazarewicz, theoretical nuclear physicist and FRIB chief scientist.

Internal function

All FRIB experiments will begin in the basement of the facility. Atoms of a specific element, usually uranium, will be ionized and sent through a 450 meter long accelerator which bends like a paperclip to fit inside the 150 meter long hall. At the end of the pipe, the ion beam will hit a graphite wheel that spins continuously to avoid overheating a particular spot. Most of the nuclei will pass through the graphite, but a fraction will collide with its carbon nuclei. This causes uranium nuclei to break down into smaller combinations of protons and neutrons, each of which is a nucleus of a different element and isotope.

This beam of matched cores will then be directed to a “fragment splitter” at ground level. The separator is made up of a series of magnets that deflect each core to the right, each at an angle that depends on its mass and charge. By refining this process, FRIB operators will be able to produce a beam consisting entirely of one isotope for each particular experiment.

The desired isotope can then be routed through a maze of beam tubes to one of several experiment halls. For the rarest isotopes, production rates could be as low as one nucleus per week, but the lab will be able to deliver and study almost any of them, Sherrill says.

A unique feature of FRIB is that it has a second accelerator that can take the rare isotopes and smash them against a stationary target, to mimic the high-energy collisions that occur inside stars or supernovae.

FRIB will start operating with a relatively low beam intensity, but its accelerator will gradually increase to produce ions at a higher rate than NSCL. Each uranium ion will also travel faster towards the graphite target, carrying an energy of 200 mega-electronvolts, compared to the 140 MeV carried by the ions in the NSCL. FRIB’s higher energy is in the ideal range for producing a large number of different isotopes, Sherrill says, including hundreds that have never been synthesized before.

The tip of knowledge

Physicists are excited about bringing FRIB online, as their knowledge of the isotope landscape is still tentative. The forces that hold atomic nuclei together are, in principle, the result of the strong force – one of the four fundamental forces in nature, and the same force that binds three quarks together to form a neutron or a proton. But nuclei are complex objects with many moving parts, and it’s impossible to accurately predict their structures and properties from first principles, Nazarewicz says.

Researchers have therefore concocted a variety of simplified models that predict certain characteristics of a certain range of nuclei, but might fail or give only rough estimates outside this range. This even applies to basic questions, such as how quickly an isotope decays — its half-life — or whether it can form at all, Nazarewicz says. “If you ask me how many isotopes of tin exist, or of lead, the answer will come with a big error bar,” he says. FRIB will be able to synthesize hundreds of hitherto unobserved isotopes (see “Unexplored nuclei”), and by measuring their properties, it will begin to test many nuclear models.

UNEXPLORED NUTS.  Graph showing measured and observed isotopes versus those that will potentially be produced by FRIB.

Source: Neufcourt, L. et al. Phys. Rev. VS 101044307 (2020)

Jones and others will be particularly keen to study isotopes that have “magic” numbers of protons and neutrons – such as 2, 8, 20, 28, or 50 – which make the structure of the nucleus particularly stable because they form full energy levels (known as shells). Magical isotopes are particularly important as they provide the cleanest tests for theoretical models. For many years, Jones and his group studied isotopes of tin with fewer and fewer neutrons, approaching tin-100, which has magic numbers of neutrons and protons.

Theoretical uncertainties also mean that researchers do not yet have a detailed explanation of how all the elements in the periodic table formed. The Big Bang produced essentially only hydrogen and helium; the other chemical elements in the table up to iron and nickel were formed mainly by nuclear fusion inside stars. But heavier elements cannot form by fusion. They were forged by other means – usually by radioactive β decay. It happens when a nucleus gains so many neutrons that it becomes unstable and one or more of its neutrons turn into a proton, creating an element with a higher atomic number.

This can happen when nuclei are bombarded with neutrons during brief but cataclysmic events, such as a supernova or the merger of two neutron stars. The most studied such event, which was observed in 2017, was consistent with patterns in which colliding orbs produce elements heavier than iron. But astrophysicists couldn’t observe what specific elements were made, or in what quantities, says Hendrik Schatz, a nuclear astrophysicist at MSU. One of FRIB’s main strengths will be to explore the neutron-rich isotopes that are made during these events, he says.

The superconducting radiofrequency linear accelerator housed in the linear accelerator tunnel of the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams.

The FRIB linear accelerator is made up of 46 cryomodules, which accelerate ion beams while operating at temperatures a few degrees above absolute zero.Credit: Rare Isotope Beam Facility

The facility will help answer the fundamental question of “how many neutrons can be added to a nucleus, and how does this affect the interactions within the nucleus?” says Anu Kankainen, an experimental physicist at the University of Jyväskylä in Finland.

FRIB will be complementary to other state-of-the-art accelerators that study nuclear isotopes, says Klaus Blaum, a physicist at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. The facilities in Japan and Russia are optimized to produce the heaviest possible elements, those at the end of the periodic table.

The €3.1 billion Facility for Research on Antiprotons and Ions (FAIR), an atom breaker under construction in Darmstadt, Germany, is expected to be completed in 2027 (although the freezing of the participation of Russia following the invasion of Ukraine could lead to delays). FAIR will produce both antimatter and matter and can store nuclei for longer. “You can’t do it all with one machine,” says Blaum, who has served on advisory boards for FRIB and FAIR.

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Are two heads better than one for floating wind? https://metroresearch.org/are-two-heads-better-than-one-for-floating-wind/ Thu, 28 Apr 2022 01:37:59 +0000 https://metroresearch.org/are-two-heads-better-than-one-for-floating-wind/ Swedish floating wind developer Hexicon – famous for housing two turbines instead of one on each of its platforms – has teamed up with local company EAAMA to form a joint venture targeting the development of offshore floating wind projects of the Greek coasts. The move comes ahead of the Greek government’s upcoming framework for […]]]>

Swedish floating wind developer Hexicon – famous for housing two turbines instead of one on each of its platforms – has teamed up with local company EAAMA to form a joint venture targeting the development of offshore floating wind projects of the Greek coasts.

The move comes ahead of the Greek government’s upcoming framework for offshore wind development, which will be released later this year, likely with a strong focus on floating wind given the country’s deep waters.

For a typical offshore wind farm, located about 10 kilometers offshore, most waters are in the region of 250 meters deep, making fixed platforms unfeasible in over 90% of its waters. With wind speeds in the region often averaging over 10 meters per second, rivaling even those in the North Sea, Hexicon CEO Marcus Thor said: “Greece has great potential for ‘floating offshore wind energy with some of the best winds in Europe’.

The new joint venture will be called Hexicon Power and will aim to help Greece reach the goal of producing 60% of its electricity from renewable energy, compared to just under 40% today.

The move also echoes Hexicon’s formation of the MunmuBaram joint venture with South Korean firm Coens and Shell Overseas Investment, which will develop and operate a 1.3GW floating offshore wind farm up to 80 kilometers offshore. from South Korea, followed by a 1.7 GW project. at a later date. It is also similar to the 50/50 AvenHexicon JV – with Avapa Energy – which aims to develop floating wind projects off Italy.

Hexicon’s differentiation in the floating wind market is its patented TwinWind design. Each platform in this design accommodates two wind turbines, which rotate around a shared mooring point depending on the prevailing wind direction. This varied from traditional floating designs where individual nacelles had to rotate to align with the wind.

An overhead representation of Hexicon’s TwinWind design

The obvious advantage of TwinWind is that it contains more generating capacity in each floating foundation and more turbines are deployed in a given marine area. Hexicon claims this will increase the energy efficiency of floating wind projects, but the main benefits here are most likely associated with sharing the infrastructure costs normally associated with one turbine, between two instead.

The company says inter-grid cabling at a Hexicon wind farm is reduced by a third, with more turbines located in a smaller area. The amount of steel required for turbine foundations is also significantly reduced per MW of rated capacity, while installation costs are also reduced through fewer wet tows and mooring installations.

Like most floating wind turbine designs, TwinWind can be assembled onshore and at port sites, allowing a fully commissioned system to be ‘wet-towed’ to the offshore site from which it will operate.

However, Hexicon has yet to physically install any of its turbines, so in-situ proof of increased production has yet to be demonstrated. Hosting two wind turbines so close together presents its own risks. Traditionally, wind turbines are spaced laterally by 7 times their measured rotor diameter, and if placed too close together, increased turbulence and air blockage will reduce the amount of wind captured by each wind turbine.

Another potential problem is that of unit failure. If one wind turbine is forced to shut down, the other will have to do the same to prevent asymmetric loading and unwanted rotation of the rig – forcing a fully working wind turbine out of commission. Since the availability of offshore wind turbines can be as low as 90%, this could significantly reduce the gross output of each wind turbine on an annual basis.

Hexicon’s success will depend on these trade-offs between loss of production efficiencies and reduced capital requirements in cabling, steel, facilities and maintenance. It will also depend on its ability to reduce the wake effect of downwind wind turbines, as it claims. The company claims that “The TwinWind can be thought of as a micro wind farm of two turbines that weathervanes so that none of the turbines are affected by wakes from windward platforms”.

Along with partnerships in Italy, Greece and South Korea, Hexicon plans to deploy its first large-scale platform – with multi-megawatt turbines – in 2023, in Norwegian waters over 200 meters deep. It has agreements in place to deploy a 32MW platform in the Celtic Sea in the UK with Bechtel, as well as the potential 100MW Pentland floating wind farm in Scotland with CIP. The company has also set up other JVs in Sweden with Aker Offshore Wind and on the Iberian Peninsula (for Spain and Portugal) with Wundersight, named Freja Offshore and WunderHexicon respectively, and is said to be in discussions with partners on the South African, Irish and American markets. .

Most of these deals have been struck in the past two years, amid a flurry of activity in the floating wind space. Inspired and somewhat facilitated by the success of offshore wind, as well as its reduced cost, floating foundations will allow offshore wind turbines to be positioned farther from shore, reducing visual impact and improving available wind conditions.

In 2021, there are only three floating wind farms in operation: Hywind Scotland (30 MW), WindFloat Atlantic (25 MW) and Kincardine (50 MW). However, the global pipeline of projects recently exceeded 54 GW, much of which will be installed before 2030, and more than half of this amount is planned for European waters.

This presents a huge opportunity for European OEMs to reassert their market lead under continued pressure from their Chinese rivals, quickly taking the lead in the floating market.

The wind sector is still in the brainstorming phase in terms of floating technology, with more than 20 variants currently competing for market attention. The industry will experience radical consolidation. Although oil and gas developers may disrupt this by trying to develop their own designs throughout the fossil fuel transition, we anticipate that once the market matures only 5 or 6 designs will be commercially viable, with Hexicon sitting alongside current favorites Principle Power (WindFloat), Fukushima (Avant) and Ideol (Floatgen).

Semi-submersibles could have a significant advantage here if construction costs and requirements can be reduced, with spar buoys posing difficulties outside their home country of Norway, where near-shore water depths are not sufficient. Innovative approaches to improving electricity generation and sharing infrastructure costs – potentially even with tidal power – are likely to prove vital to winning the race.

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Exercise is a basic necessity in the wake of the pandemic: Dutch Sports Council https://metroresearch.org/exercise-is-a-basic-necessity-in-the-wake-of-the-pandemic-dutch-sports-council/ Sun, 24 Apr 2022 05:15:00 +0000 https://metroresearch.org/exercise-is-a-basic-necessity-in-the-wake-of-the-pandemic-dutch-sports-council/ It is high time the government recognizes that sport and exercise are vital necessities, according to the Dutch Sports Council. The movement can help both enable better protection against the development of disease and against the serious consequences of infectious diseases, including Covid-19, the council underlined in a letter to the ministers of Health, Welfare […]]]>

It is high time the government recognizes that sport and exercise are vital necessities, according to the Dutch Sports Council. The movement can help both enable better protection against the development of disease and against the serious consequences of infectious diseases, including Covid-19, the council underlined in a letter to the ministers of Health, Welfare and of Sports (VWS).

The council called on the three ministers to consider sport and exercise as a basic necessity of life and to protect the Dutch population against inactivity. With two pandemic “wake-up calls” — lack of exercise and Covid-19 — plus research showing that lack of exercise is the biggest health problem of the 21st century, the council was surprised and saddened that ‘In her first week Minister Conny Helder indicated that sport and exercise is not an essential service, he said.

The council also encouraged the government to shift to health protection rather than health promotion. Health promotion assumes that citizens can make an individual choice for a healthy lifestyle, whereas the basic principle of health protection is that the government should protect citizens from an unhealthy lifestyle.

“People can’t always make the personal choice to have an active lifestyle. Just look at neighborhoods without sports facilities,” said board member Erik Scherder. “Or take schools, offices and care facilities where children, adults and the elderly are ‘forced’ to sit. But also consider groups of people who have few choices, such as people with disabilities or low incomes. In situations like this, people need to be protected by the government from inactivity.”

Protection has proven to be a better path than health promotion, according to the council. This has been demonstrated in anti-tobacco measures which have included the banning of tobacco and smoking advertisements in the workplace and in the hospitality industry.

The sports council believes the government can play a crucial protective role in tackling lack of exercise. It also promotes a law that will make sport and physical exercise accessible to all.

“The urgency of the issue of inactivity is so great that we cannot ignore it,” Council Chairman Michael van Praag said. “Until then, the Public Health Act provides Cabinet with the option of declaring sport and exercise essential, so that current sport and exercise provision can remain open under all circumstances.”

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